The profession of an electrician
Electrician is a profession of technically competent and disciplined people.
Average salary: 50,000 rubles per month
Demand 86% Payability 75% Competition 67% Entry barrier 62% Perspectives fifty%
An electrician is a specialist who is engaged in the installation, connection, commissioning and operation of electrical equipment in the electrical networks of various systems.
ContentHistory of the professionDescription of the professionWhat specialties are better to studyThe best universities and colleges for trainingResponsibilities at workWho suitsHow much getHow to build a careerProfession prospectsRelated VideosComments
History of the profession
The name of the profession – “electrician” – is composed of two words: the ancient Greek ἤλεκτρον, which can be translated as “electron” (“amber rubbed with wool”), and the French montage, which means “to lift”. The mention of amber is due to the fact that by rubbing it against wool in ancient times (in the 7th century BC), an impressive effect of the generation of static electricity was created. The second part in the title probably indicates the nature of the transmission of energy through stretched through the air (“raised”) lines of wires.To create networks, it is necessary to continuously generate electricity and transmit it through power lines. Since 1800, a “volt pole” has been used as a generator since 1800, and since the end of the century – various electromechanical devices powered by fossil fuels. In St. Petersburg, already in 1879, the Alexander II Bridge (Liteiny) was equipped with lamp lanterns, which were installed by the first Russian electricians.
In 1884, the English engineer Charles Parsons designed a steam turbine in its modern form, which generates a current in a closed loop, the analogues of which still generate about 80% of the world’s electricity. A little later, a transformer was invented, which made it possible to efficiently transfer energy with less current and higher voltage. As a result of the widespread use of technology for organizing a system for transmitting energy from centralized power plants through intermediate nodes and transformers to the end consumer in the national economy, a special specialist was needed – an electrician for electrical networks and electrical equipment.
Today, a sharp increase in the professional demand for electrical specialists occurs in every country that is modernizing its economy with the use of progressive economic models. And this always leads to the sectoral division of specializations within the profession. Since the end of the 19th century, electrical installation has been relevant in the field of information transmission, transport communications, household electrical supply, cooling and heating of premises, in the creation of new materials and their processing, and in many other areas of the economy.
Electricians celebrate their professional holiday on December 22.
Description of the profession
An electrician of electrical networks and electrical equipment is responsible for the installation of electric motors, transformers, laying of ground, underground and overhead lines, as well as for the creation of systems for various purposes that use electricity. Depending on the profile guidelines, there are many areas of activity for an electrician:
power networks and electrical equipment;rechargeable batteries;cable networks;lighting and lighting networks;switchgear and secondary circuits;alarm, centralization and blocking;electric cars.
Electrical installers can be schematics, adjusters, ship specialists. Each of the areas of activity in the work directory (ETKS RF) is described as an independent profession with its own code for OKPDTR.
In particular, an electrician of electrical networks and electrical equipment is engaged in the installation of mounted electrical equipment, which is associated with the use of fastening structures, grounding, preparation and laying of pipelines, cables and lighting boxes for them, installation and start-up of transformers and switchboards, etc. duties directly depend on the category of a specialist (from 2nd to 6th).
The installation of disconnectors, capacitor banks, arresters, air switches, the revision of unique equipment with measurements and sketches of work performed for individual nodes, the assembly of ready-made packages, support structures for bus ducts and the manufacture of bus blocks is carried out by an electrician for switchgear and secondary circuits.
The schemer is responsible for creating wiring diagrams of products and their individual units, as well as for tying complex systems in place, according to drawings or ready-made samples. Examples of the work of a schematic designer can be blocks and stations of control and power supply, special electric propulsion panels, tubular blowers for air heaters, mainline electric locomotives in terms of creating tires for the main transformer and setting up electrical circuits, etc.
Electricians are also trained to perform the processes of installing alarm systems equipment, connecting power sources (both main and backup), and how is naruto a hero essay interlocking devices.
What specialties are better to study
An electrician is trained in the following specialties:
electric power and electrical engineering;electrician of electrical networks and electrical equipment;electrician-adjuster;installation, adjustment and operation of electrical equipment for industrial and civil buildings, etc.
A number of educational institutions train engineers and skilled workers according to programs providing for the division according to the branches of the national economy. Therefore, for example, to work in the agro-industrial complex, you can study in the specialty “agroengineering”.
The best universities and colleges for training
You can get higher engineering and secondary specialized education of an electrician in Moscow and the regions of Russia. Among the capital’s are popular:
Universities:MSTU, MIEE, NRU MEI, RSAU-Moscow Agricultural Academy named after K. Timiryazeva, MIIT (Russian University of Transport).College:OKG “Stolitsa”, College of Modern Technologies. M. Panova, “26 frame”.
In the regions:
Universities:Peter the Great SPbPU and Mining University (St. Petersburg), MSTU im. G. Nosov (Magnitogorsk), NCFU (Stavropol), VolgGTU (Volgograd), BSTU named after V. Shukhova (Belgorod), KSU (Kurgan), FEFU (Vladivostok), OmSTU (Omsk), KubGAU and KubGTU (Krasnodar), etc.College:Malokhtinsky, Nevsky im. A. Nebolsina and Petrovsky Colleges (St. Petersburg), Kazan Construction College, Samara College of Industrial Technologies, Omsk Assembly College, Krasnoyarsk College of Welding Technologies and Power Engineering, Chelyabinsk Energy College named after S. Kirov, Novosibirsk industrial and energy colleges, many others.
To enter universities, you need the results of the exam in mathematics, Russian language, physics, computer science and ICT. The colleges are admitted through a competition of certificates.
Responsibilities at work
The list of functions of an electrician depends on the category of the worker and his specialization. But in general, regardless of the workplace and profile, the range of job responsibilities includes the unconditional fulfillment of safety requirements and compliance with the established work algorithm.
Before starting the process, the electrician checks the quality of the equipment and fasteners, and after installation, he sets up, debugs and tests the operability and safety of the network. To do this, an electrician must know how to cut control, high-voltage and special cables, the design features of control panels (protection), distribution panels, station nodes, characteristics of transformers. In addition, he must be able to apply methods for checking electrical equipment, know the conditions for putting objects into operation, the rules and algorithm for carrying out work in hazardous areas.
In the event of an accident, line breakage, electricians must be the first to go to the site to eliminate the malfunction.
Mostly men are becoming electricians. This work is dangerous, therefore, it requires the candidate to resist stress, accuracy, responsibility, discipline and the ability to strictly follow the established safety rules.
Working in a team, a specialist must show qualities that allow him to effectively interact in a team: sociability, tolerance, patience.
How much get
In Russia, an electrician earns an average of 50 thousand rubles a month, but there are regions (as a rule, these are remote and / or northern regions) where the average salary level is higher – at the level of 80-85 thousand rubles. At the same time, specific differences in activity can significantly affect wages. So, for example, the salary of a specialist in lighting and lighting networks is less – about 25-30 thousand rubles, for electricians of low-current systems – about 40 thousand.
How to build a career
The professional growth of an electrician is confirmed by the assignment of the next category and the level of admission (from 1 to 5) to work with electricity (for electrical safety). Social and administrative advancement is accompanied by the transfer of the employee to the position of foreman. Universal professionals may consider moving to a new job in a related profile.
According to the Ministry of Labor of Russia, the profession of an electrician is among the 50 most demanded types of activities. The economic importance of uninterruptedly operating power grids is so great that a qualified specialist is relatively easy to get a job in any developed country in the world, where almost every sphere of the national economy is directly dependent on electrification. Taking into account the general globalization and the strengthening of this dependence, the profession will remain relevant for a very long time.
Author: Alexey Kuznetsov